In the Netherlands there are various ways of travelling around the country.
Most students use a bicycle for their transport in town (as you will see on your arrival in the Netherlands). If you plan to stay in Holland for a few months, it is advisable for you to buy an (old) second-hand bike. Ask the Dutch students where to buy them, but make sure you buy a legal one (so do not buy a bike you think might be stolen). Second-hand bike shops sell bikes at the reasonable prices of €50 – €100.
The bus station is located near the railway station. If you want to travel by bus, you have to be in the possession of a public transport card (OV-kaart). This OV-kaart can be reused. The OV-kaart can be bought at the ticket office, train station or cigarette stores. Busses are used to travel relative short distances (never more than 20 km).
Taxis are rather expensive in the Netherlands. There is start price of € 7.50 regardless of the length of the ride. For each consecutive kilometre a surcharge is applied. Always ask the price of the ride and check if the price matches the prices that should be announced inside the taxi. Do not go with unregistered taxis that solicit for a ride. Luckily, it is possible to grab an Uber too, a taxi service that is much cheaper than the regular taxis in the Netherlands.
Trains are, when compared to other European countries, neither very expensive, nor very cheap. The quality is relatively good. There are regular services all over the country. As Amsterdam and Utrecht have large train stations, you will always have easy connections to all the big cities from the central train station. Please check www.ns.nl/en. You can travel first class (expensive, but more comfortable) and second class (the least expensive one) when you have the right ticket. Return tickets are only valid on the day of issue. When traveling from one city to another, it is common to travel by train.
There are some possibilities to travel for less money. There are several types of discount cards. More information can be given at the railway station, or consult www.ns.nl/en. Be aware of the fact that travelling without a valid train ticket could cost you a great deal of money (if caught you have to pay a fine of 40 euro + the price of the ticket you had to buy) and if you cannot pay (in cash only) straight away, the fine will be increased with administration costs!